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托福写作高分技巧:巧妙使用举例论证法

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???? 在托福独立写作中,举例法是最好的论证方法。举例法通常可以分为一般性例证,数据类例证和名人名事引证。今天给同学们分享举例法中数据例证在托福写作中的运用。很多同学会有疑问,如果要使用权威数据来证明观点,似乎觉得自己没有阅读过很多的数据类文献,觉得手头的数据太不真实,所以不敢往上写。首先,给大家打消这个疑虑,这个权威数据真的需要亲自去读学术类的期刊吗?不需要。我们只需要学会合理编写数据就可以了。那同学们会问了,编的数据可靠吗,考官会去验证你数据的真实性吗? 这个大家不要担心,ETS的考官不会轻易怀疑大家所写的数据,因为参加托福考试的人群,有像我们这样的普通青年,也有各个学科的大触,所以只要你编写的数据合理,ETS是不敢妄下判断否定你论据的真实性的。

首先我们要有模板,

模板一:A 年份 survey/report, conducted by XX组织/XX机构/XX大学, (after polling XX人群 aged x and x) proved that XX% a, XX% b, XX% c

模板二:According to XX年份 surveys, conducted by XX组织/XX机构, shows that

其次,我们要积累编写数据例证时常用的机构/组织的名称:

环保局Environmental protection agency

卫生厅 department of public health

教育部Ministry of Education

人力资源部Human resource Department

交通局 Traffic department

数据类题目适用于哪类题目?最适用的题型是今昔对比类题目, 如下:

Twenty years from now on, people will have more leisure time than they do now

Secondly, the working time of people has become much shorter, thus resulting in people's preference for more leisure

time. According to 1995 and 2005 surveys conducted by Human Resources Department, people worked 8 hours every day in 2005

while people in 1995 worked almost 9 hours each day. The shortened work time is caused by the wide use fo machines

分析:

题目大意: 20年后,人们会有更多休闲时间。

人们休闲时间越来越多可以通过调查人们在19952005工作时长的减少反映出来。

It was easier to identify what jobs or careers were secure and successful in the past than it is now

Additionally, a questionnaire about choosing an ideal job conducted by Career Service Center in China has surveyed two

groups of people with the first at the age of 50 and above and the second aged from 20 to 30. 58.4%. According to the

above survey, 32.5% of the first group respectively choose the option of civil servants and teachers. On the contrary,

72.4% of the second group circled the third option of other occupations such as singers, freelance writers and so on. The

difference in the two groups of figures lies in the transition of people's attitude of choosing a job

题目大意: 现在更难以去判断一项工作是否成功。

通过一项问卷调查来说明现在人们打破了以前铁饭碗的观念,开始从事其他类别的工作,从而证明人们对于成功工作的定义变得多样化。

Nowadays it is easier to get educated than in the past

A 2012-report conducted by Beijing Human Resources Department: the female percentage in the occupations such as

professors, doctors, layers. Engineers grew by 80.3% compared to the days 50 years ago

通过古今对比体面工作中女性比例的上升,来证明女性接受教育比以前要容易了。

总之,同学们要想熟练的运用数据类论据,就要首先记住固定的表达方式,其次,要总结常用的机构名称,最后,要清楚数据类论据适合古今对比类文章。

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